Annexation of Nicoya's Party
The township of Nicoya, established in 1554 as a separate administrative unit in the province of Nicaragua, was incorporated in 1787 to the newly established Inspectorate of Leon in Nicaragua. In the early nineteenth century, to elect deputies to the Spanish Cortes, Nicoya was electorally bound to Costa Rica. In 1812 the Cortes of Cadiz created the Province of Nicaragua and Costa Rica, which in 1820 was divided into seven parts: Costa Rica, El Realejo, Granada, León, Nicaragua (Rivas), Nicoya and Nueva Segovia. The province was ruled by a Superior Political Chief and Provincial residing in Leon and in each of the other six games was a Junior Political Leader. In 1821, at the time independence, the political chief of the party Subaltern Costa Rica was Juan Manuel de Cañas-Trujillo and the Nicoya Party was Peter Sobenes.
The Province of Nicaragua and Costa Rica broke away from Spain on 11 October 1821, but soon broke up because both Granada and Costa Rica established separate governments of Leon. For a time, Nicoya was attached to Granada, but returned in 1823 to recognize the authority of Leon.
At that time, the Partido de Nicoya had three populations: Nicoya, indigenous town, seat of the government and the towns of Santa Cruz and Guanacaste (Liberia), where lived spaniards and mestizos. Geographically, Nicoya and Santa Cruz had strong economic ties with Costa Rica and the rising port of Puntarenas, in Guanacaste (Liberia) had strong ties to Nicaragua (Rivas) (The region west of the river Tempisque, Bagaces villages and Canas, belonged to Costa Rica from the sixteenth century and were never part of the Nicoya Party).
In early July 1824, while Nicaragua was plunged into civil war whose effects never reached to Nicoya, three towns of the Partido declined an invitation to them by the government of Costa Rica to join that state. However, Nicoya and Santa Cruz changed their minds, and July 25, 1824 decided to annex to Costa Rica, as recorded in the minutes of the City of Nicoya signed on that date by the political chief Junior Manuel Briceño and numerous neighbors.
In 1826, an act of Federal Central American Congress also provided that the population of Guanacaste (Liberia today) should be added to Costa Rica , In 1824 Liberia had chosen to continue to belong to Nicaragua. The importance of the people of Guanacaste was growing; Nicoya gradually shifted as the main population of the old party and in 1831 received the title of town.
In 1835 the former territory of the Nicoya Party was organized as the Department of Guanacaste Costa Rican authorities, with the addition of Bagaces villa, the town of Cañas and the area around these two populations. The town of Guanacaste (Liberia) was erected in town in 1836.
In 1848 the territory was given provincial status with four cantons: the Guanacaste, Nicoya, in Santa Cruz and Bagaces and Canas. Currently the province has 11 cantons.